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hackberry root rot

Worldwide, this species has a wide range. PubMed  Conidia were oval, both ends round and blunt, wider in the middle, initially transparent and aseptate or not partitioned (Fig. f–h Septate, melanin deposits on the inner surface of the wall arranged longitudinally giving a striate appearance to the conidia. The samples were sterilized in 75% alcohol for 3 min, dried quickly under a flame and rinsed three times with aseptic water for 30 s. Aseptic filter paper was used to absorb the water on the surface. Part of Springer Nature. Ganoderma root and butt rot Ganoderma spp. These sequences were aligned using MEGA version 5.0. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-019-01049-x. Two common root pathogens, Ganoderma and Armillaria, may infect hackberry. Following 2 weeks of treatment under UV light, the colonies produced pycnidia (Fig. (2016) found the sexual morph of L. pseudotheobromae collected from dead leaves of Plukenetia volubilis L. (Euphorbiaceae) in Yunnan Province, China. Outgroup: Diplodia mutila. The morphological characteristics of the Ls7 isolate fit those of L. pseudotheobromae (Alves et al. Ph.D. dissertation, South China Agricultural University, pp 1–58, Wang JN, Zhao HH, Yu YY, Li XD, Liang C, Li BD (2016) The pathogen causing Lasiodiplodia twig blight of blueberry. 1a), and the top young leaves on twigs were wrinkled and brittle due to dehydration (Fig. All monocots, such as palms, yuccas, agaves and grasses are immune and are good choices to plant anywhere that Texas root rot has been observed. The Botryosphaeriaceae is a fungal family containing pathogens that cause canker disease of trees (Pavlic 2004). Mycol Prog 9(1):101–123, Berbegal M, Pérez-Sierra A, Armengol J (2012) First report of Sirosporium celtidis causing a foliar disease of European hackberry in Spain. In mid-June 2018, each of the seven types of fungi was inoculated to 4-year-old seedlings with 10 replicates. It is a good choice for a natural landscape or habitat garden but also does well in areas with heavy foot traffic. Transverse sections of xylem tissue were also black–brown (Fig. Once you have gained the root access, you can choice the apps that only work for rooted phones which can enhance the battery of the BlackBerry Priv. DNA amplification and sequencing were carried out with a GStorm Gradient PCR (Mastercycler nexus GSX1) using a program according to Zhang et al. This tree has weak wood that breaks under the stresses of snow, ice and wind. In the summer of 2016, a small amount of Chinese hackberry canker disease occurred but did not attract attention in Suqian City. In other seasons the disease is less aggressive (Wu et al. Download the software on your BlackBerry KEY2 and hit Root. Fungal Divers 61(1):181–193, Netto MSB, Assuncao IP, Lima GSA, Marques MW, Lima WG, Monteiro JHA, Balbino VQ, Michereff SJ, Phillips AJL, Camara MPS (2014) Species of Lasiodiplodia associated with papaya stem-end rot in Brazil. China Agricultural Press, Beijing, Zhang YH, Wei DS, Xing LJ, Li MC (2008) A modified method for isolating DNA from fungus. If left untreated it will cause rapid decline and death. The pathogen overwinters in the soil, and in the summer of the following year, conidia and conidiomata are spread by wind and rain (Yee et al. I digestibility of nutrients and body mass-gain. PubMed Google Scholar. Possible fungal causal agents were isolated from naturally infected canker tissue and discoloured xylem. It is also known as the nettletree, sugarberry, beaverwood, northern hackberry, and American hackberry. The twigs and stems of all infected seedlings became cankerous and turned black, which was devastating to Chinese hackberry plantations. A good replacement tree for the American Elm because of its similar form and adaptability. 2016). Based on available knowledge, this is the first report of Chinese hackberry stem canker disease caused by L. pseudotheobromae in China. Hackberry > Leaves > Leaves wilt and turn yellow or brown. a Colony on white background. The tender leaf, roots and bark of hackberry can reduce swelling, relieve pain, clearing away heat and toxic materials. The common hackberry tree is known by several names including sugarberry, nettletree, beaverwood, American hackberry, and northern hackberry. Four pairs of primers were selected to amplify the target gene: ITS-1 and ITS-4 (ITS) (White et al. For undergraduate student information regarding the Sustainable Agriculture program, contact Dr. Krista Jacobsen at (859) 257-3921, or krista.jacobsen@uky.edu. Although sugar hackberry has been used as a street tree in many cities in the South, its use has been banned by other cities because of problems with trunk rot. Colony and spore morphologies were recorded every 24 h using a Nikon DS-Ri1 camera, Stereo Discovery, V20, Zeiss. The pycnidia were nearly spherical, approximately 220–240 µm diameter, and formed scattered, unilocular, dark-brown to black areas on the stem and host epidermis (Fig. Australas Plant Dis Notes 10(1):21, Dou ZP, He W, Zhang Y (2017) Lasiodiplodia chinensis, a new holomorphic species from China. Other sequences needed were obtained from the GenBank database of NCBI (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae is important in agriculture and forestry as it causes cankers, stem-end rot, dieback and fruit rot (Sakalidis et al. All the isolate groups were tested for pathogenicity on the seedling stems. In addition, it also can infect Acacia confusa Merr (Dou et al. There is no evidence that Texas root rot … The online version is available at http://www.springerlink.com. The symptoms of canker on stems of seedlings were discovered mid-July 2017 in Shuyang, Jiangsu Province. 2017), Anacardium occidentale L., Citrus, Coffea and Gmelina species (Phillips et al. 4g, h). Australas Plant Pathol 41:649–660, Kwon JH, Choi O, Kang B, Lee Y, Park J, Kang DW, Han I, Kim J (2017) Identification of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae causing mango dieback in Korea. Conidia exist all year-round but are rarely detected in winter (Xu et al. 2008; Abdollahzadeh et al. Fungal Ecol 4:1–14, Slippers B, Roux J, Wingfield MJ, van der Walt FJJ, Jami F, Mehl JWM, Marais GJ (2014) Confronting the constraints of morphological taxonomy in the Botryosphaeriales. 2c). Persoonia 34:87–99, Wang XY (2016) The identification of pathogens for 17 fungal diseases of 14 ornamental plants. Mol Biol Evol 28:2731–2739, Tennakoon DS, Phillips AJL, Phookamsak R, Ariyawansa HA, Bahkali AH, Hyde KD (2016) Sexual morph of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae (Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeriales, Dothideomycetes) from China. They are broad crowned and often have an erratic shape. b Colony on black background. In the instance that all goes good, the Kingo Root app is going to root your BlackBerry KEY2. Genomic DNA was extracted from mature mycelia according to Zhang et al. 2015). Among these, more than 50% were classified as Ls7 type and found to be similar to Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae. Several cultivars of common hackberry are available with either a single leader or more resistance to witches-broom These include ‘Chicagoland,' ‘Delta' and ‘Prairie Pride.'. In addition, the Ls7 isolate grew at 10 °C and produced dark pink colonies at 35 °C (Fig. Kingo SuperBattery is for rooted Android that Closes background apps and services to optimize your phone. At the same time, it has a wide range of hosts. The university does not review, control or take responsibility for the contents of those sites. i A condium with partial germ tube (Bars = 10 µm), Fungus isolate Ls7 a unique dark pink colony under incubation at 35 °C. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1323–1330, Ismail AM, Cirvilleri G, Polizzi G, Crous PW, Groenewald JZ, Lombard L (2012) Lasiodiplodia species associated with dieback disease of mango (Mangifera indica) in Egypt. The symptoms of canker began to develop 20 days after inoculation with Ls7 isolate and by day 35, there were dark, enlarged longitudinal lesions. b The leaves of the diseased plant showed dieback. Many fungi are capable of causing root rots and some cause considerable decay of the butts of trees as well. It was the first evidence in molecular genetics of a sexual morph for this species. 2013). Site design : Academic Web Pages. Fungal Divers 28(2):1–13, Begoude BAD, Slippers B, Wingfield MJ, Roux J (2010) Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Terminalia catappa in Cameroon, South Africa and Madagascar. Pests and disorders of Celtis spp. Using phylogenetic analyses based on ITS and tef1-α sequence data, they authenticated the sexual-asexual connection in L. pseudotheobromae. 2008; Zhao et al. According to the ITS sequence, Ls1 –Ls7 types were identified as Fusarium tricinctum (2%), Diaporthe spp. The Botryosphaeriaceae is a fungal family containing pathogens that cause canker disease of … Hackberry. Common hackberry (C. occidentalis) tolerates most difficult sites and is native from Canada to Georgia including Kentucky. The initial sites of infection appeared as watery reddish brown spots (Fig. It is also used as industrial materials and various furniture. Plants reported by Auburn University to be resistant to Armillaria root rot include ginkgo, tulip tree, ash, bald cypress, cherry, Chinese elm, Chinese pistache, crabapple, cryptomeria, dawn redwood, eucalyptus, hackberry, holly, incense cedar, Leyland cypress, maidenhair tree, maple, privet, smoke tree, sweetgum, tree-ofheaven, white fir, and wisteria. Based on the phylogenetic relationship of β-tubulin, Cheng (2012) concluded that the sexual stage of L. pseudotheobromae may be Botryosphaeria rhodina. Send mail to cgcass0@uky.edu with questions about this site. Lasiodiplodia species are members of the Botryosphaeriaceae and are widely found in tropical and subtropical regions (Phillips et al. J Nanjing For Univ 25(1):61–66, Wu HR, Li ZP, Sun XYQ, Zhang Y, Ding JY, Cheng LL (2018) Identification and biological characteristics of the pathogen causing stinking root rot of rubber tree. Root Rot Diseases: Root rot diseases are caused by fungi that are found in the soil and attack the roots of plants. Plant Pathol 65(1):92–103, Coutinho IBL, Freire FCO, Lima CS, Lima JS, Goncalves FJT, Machado AR, Silva AMS, Cardoso JE (2016) Diversity of genus Lasiodiplodia associated with perennial tropical fruit plants in northeastern Brazil. The slightly sunken grey–black lesions enlarged longitudinally and the associated weakening of tree vigor affected the ornamental and commercial value of the species. Step 3 was repeated and 30 µL of ddH2O was added to obtain a solution of the DNA. (2008). 4d, e). To avoid errors in sequencing, DNA strands were spliced using forward and reverse primers (Two-way measurement: Sequencing Complete Sequences from Two Directions). Armillaria root rot is a likely fungal disease of hackberry, and … The procedure was: (1) mycelium grown for 3–4 days was placed in 2 mL test tubes with 500 µL of 2 × CTAB (containing 1% β-mercaptoethanol), rapidly cooled for 30 s in liquid nitrogen, and then heated immediately to 65 °C for 30 s. This was repeated three times; (2) a 1/2 volume of glass beads was added to each test tube before placing on a vortex shaker for 4–5 min, followed by heating to 65 °C for 20 min and shaking once every 10 min. The branches can tend to droop. 1b). In the genus Lasiodiplodia, L. pseudotheobromae is phylogenetically close to L. theobromae (Li et al. During summer monsoons, these warm, moist soils provide ideal conditions for this fungus to find a suitable host that it can parasitize. The xylem was also dark brown (Fig. Hackberry trees are susceptible to infestation from the hackberry woolly aphid. 2011), which was validated using bootstrap analyses with 1000 repetitions (Saitou and Nei 1987). Persoonia 25(1):1–10, CAS  4c). Sixty fungal samples were divided into different groups according to colony morphology and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences. Der Hackberry General Store wurde 1934 errichtet als der nahegelegene Ort Hackberry jenseits des Schienenstrangs mehr und mehr wuchs. a Control stem (not inoculated with L. pseudothebromae). For. The tissues were cut into 4 × 4 mm pieces between symptomatic and healthy tissues and cultured on fresh potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium containing 100 μg mL−1 ampicillin (Dai et al. d Mature conidiomata on the disease site in this disease. Common Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) General Description A medium-sized tree native to North Dakota. Seedlings inoculated with sterile PDA showed no symptoms of canker (Fig. The ITS sequence of the test pathogen revealed 100% homology with L. pseudotheobromae in GenBank of BLAST search. J. The hackberry tree is very adaptable and that is one of the reasons you will find it lining so many streets across the country. The presence of the disease cannot be ignored as it leads to significant economic losses in forestry and agriculture (Wang 2016). Rooting Habit- Hackberry is a deep rooting species, ultimately reaching depths between 3 and 6 m (10 and 20 ft) on most sites (8). All inoculated seedlings were kept in a greenhouse at 25 °C under ambient conditions of 70–80% humidity, with 24 h light every day. The colonies turned dark gray after 5 days (Fig. 2013; Coutinho et al. 3a). There were no obvious conflicts in a single gene phylogeny and the ITS, tef1-α, TUB and rpb2 datasets can be amalgamated. It is also susceptible to galls, caused by insects called psyllids, that can disfigure the leaves. Two seedlings inoculated with Ls7 isolate developed canker spots on days 23 and 27 after inoculation, respectively. Pat. The lesions were approximately 98 mm × 6 mm (Fig. Ten healthy Chinese hackberry seedlings (from ‘Yanguan chunxiao farm’; Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province 30°27′21′′N, 120°32′40′′E) were inoculated with each type of fungal isolates, respectively. This fungus does not appear to interfere with normal life processes and, other than the fungal growth, the tree appears healthy. Brown Rot – This is the most serious version. Project funding: The work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Number: 2017YFD0600104). Hackberry is a tree with an elm-like form and is, in fact, related to the elm.The wood of hackberry has never been used for lumber, primarily because of the tree's softness and an almost immediate propensity to rot when in contact with the elements. 2007; Correia et al. PCR Protoc 38:315–322, Wu XQ, He YQ, Liu ZH (2001) Occurrence and progress on tree cankers caused by Botryosphaeria spp. d, e Conidiophore (red star). 1994); EF1-688F and EF1-1251R (tef1-α) (Alves et al. Common diseases of Chinese hackberry are powdery mildew, stem and root rot, twig blight and leaf spot. Results of the pathogenicity trial. (Fig. Although sugar hackberry has been used as a street tree in many cities in the South, its use has been banned by other cities because of problems with trunk rot. 2b). Samples were cultured at 25 °C in a dark incubator. Fungal isolates were cultured in PDA medium for 5 days at 25 °C. Persoonia 21:29–55, Phillips AJL, Alves A, Abdollahzadeh J, Slippers B, Wingfield MJ, Groenewald JZ, Crous PW (2013) The Botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from culture. The PCR products were sequenced by GenScript Biotechnology in Nanjing, China. Plant Dis 96(12):1826, CAS  The trees produce a quality hardwood, are commonly scattered throughout the Northeast, the bark and berries are striking, and they make excellent shade and street specimens. Ph.D. dissertation, Chinese Academy of Forestry, pp 1–101, Correia K, Silva MA, De Morais MA, Armengol J, Phillips AJL, Camara MPS, Michereff SJ (2016) Phylogeny, distribution and pathogenicity of Lasiodiplodia species associated with dieback of table grape in the main Brazilian exporting region. It has a slender trunk that grows to a height of sixty feet in the middle states, but can be much taller the further south it grows. Chin J Trop Crops 39(5):940–947, Xu CN, Chi FM, Ji ZR, Dong QL, Zhang HJ, Cao KQ, Zhou ZS (2014) Research progress of Botryosphaeriaceae with dieback of blueberry. 2013; Netto et al. Soft Rot – This can be caused by a fungal or bacterial infection. 2010; Perez et al. 2016), Albizia falcataria (L.), Paulownia spp., Mangifera sylvatica, Eucalyptus spp. b 7-day-old dark gray colonies, fluffy aerial mycelium. Phylogenetic tree based on combined rDNA-ITS, tef1-α, TUB and RPB2 gene sequences of Chinese hackberry Lasiodiplodia stem canker pathogen and related fungi. In severe cases, they may even lead to plant death (Alves et al. 4a). Pathogens commonly enter the plant through wounds left by pruning of twigs and this may be the main reason for the spread of the disease. 2019). The experiment was carried out during the summer of 2018. Its rhizome fibers are strong and used in paper making, making ropes, artificial cotton and artificial fiber. The outbreak period was concentrated in July and August, suggesting that the disease spread during summer months. For general undergraduate student information, contact Dr. Rick Durham at (859) 257-3249, or rdurham@uky.edu. PubMed Central  2015). It is not particular where it grows, it prefers moist soil, but will grow on gravelly or rocky hillsides. b Symptoms at the early stage, reddish brown spots and canker developing around the inoculation sites. The results show that isolates of Lasiodiplodia sp. Why the hackberry is not a more well known tree is a complete mystery to me. This study focused on a Chinese hackberry canker disease outbreak between July and August. These trees can live 150 to 200 years. 2017), papaya stem-end rot (Netto et al. 2004), resulting in considerable economic losses. Mycologia 96(3):598–613, PubMed  J Gen Plant Pathol 85:66–71, Zhang L (2012) Global forest pest health profile: a case study under the global forest resources assessment 2005. were clearly divided into several clades or groups with a common ancestor representing different species within Lasiodiplodia. Journal of Forestry Research Plant Dis 99(1):155, Maricarmen S, Angel DN, Sandoval-Islas JS, Ortiz DT, Orozco-Santos M, Silva-Rojas HV (2013) Hongos asociados a pudrición del pedúnculo y muerte descendente del mango (Mangifera indica L.). 2008) and therefore confirmed as L. pseudotheobromae causing Chinese hackberry canker. Res. 2014). The maximum temperature tolerated by L. pseudotheobromae was 54 °C this resistance to high temperatures enables it to survive during the summer months. Liang, L., Li, H., Zhou, L. et al. c Symptoms at a later stage; typical canker symptoms of Chinese hackberry 35 days after stem inoculation. 2019) and is tolerant of dry and nutrient-poor soils. Google Scholar, Alves A, Correia ACM, Luque J, Phillips AJL (2004) Botryosphaeria corticola, sp. After PCR amplification, the Ls7 isolate with primers ITS1/ITS4, EF1-1251r/EF1-688f, BT2a/BT2b and rpb2-LasR/rpb2-LasF, segment sizes of 544, 315, 462 and 532 bp were acquired, respectively. S Afr J Anim Sci 20:234–238, Dai SL, Lin J, Gao L (2007) Brief report on antibacterial activity of penicillin and streptomycin in PDA medium. nov. on Quercus species, with notes and description of Botryosphaeria stevensii and its anamorph, Diplodia mutila. Accurately forecast remaining usage time of your battery. With the development of the disease, slightly concave canker spots extended and gradually turned black–brown (Fig. 2004). Google Scholar, Cacciola SO (2000) A foliar disease of European hackberry endemic in Sicily. Root rot should be addressed as soon as possible. 2016), blueberry dieback (Wang et al. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Common hackberry is more susceptible to an unsightly witches-broom, which can disfigure branches but does not seriously affect the health of the tree. Conidiophores were inflated at their base with one diaphragm which reduced to conidiogenous cells (Fig. Persoonia 40:63–95, Luongo L, Haegi A, Galli M, Berti S, Vitale S, Belisario A (2015) First report of Phytophthora megasperma causing decline and death on Celtis australis in Italy. NONGJIA KEJI 9:211, Chen SF, Pavlic-Zupanc D, Roux J, Slippers B, Xie YJ, Wingfield MJ, Zhou XD (2011) Characterization of Botryosphaeriaceae from plantation-grown Eucalyptus species in South China. Sequences downloaded from NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) were then used to carry out cluster analysis (Dou et al. In China, it is mainly distributed in central and eastern portions of the country, including Beijing, Jiangsu, Hubei, Sichuan, and Shandong (Li and Li 2015). Before the establishment of phylogenetic trees with four groups of gene links, two tree-building methods were used to sequence and analyze individual gene sequences. One hundred µL TE was added to completely dissolve the DNA; and, (4) 100 µL of RNase A (10 mg/mL) was attached to each tube and dried at 65 °C for 30 min. These dark brown lesions contained pycnidia densely packed with conidia, and leaves on the twigs began to wilt (Fig. Trunk diameter ranges from 1-3’ (less frequently to 4’). Stud Mycol 76:51–167, Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. c, d Conidiogenous cell. (3%), Clonostachys rosea (8%), Alternaria alternaria (11%), Fusarium equiseti (12%), Rhizoctonia solani (14%) and L. pseudotheobromae (50%). However, these fruits can develop abundant seedlings that can become a weed pest. These diseases lead to bark discolouration, browning of medullary tissue, a decline in growth, and drying of leaves on upper branches. 2011; Ismail et al. 2012; Maricarmen et al. Eventually, the twigs wilted. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425, Sakalidis ML, Hardy GESJ, Burgess TI (2011) Endophytes as potential pathogens of the baobab species Adansonia gregorii: a focus on the Botryosphaeriaceae. is an adaptable species widely growing in southern China. Therefore, the isolate was confirmed to be L. pseudotheobromae on the grounds of molecular identification. It differs from sugar hackberry in that the leaves are toothed and not smooth. PubMed  The pycnidia or fruiting body of the fungus is produced near the canker before spreading to neighboring hosts. Growth & leaves size, shape, appearance similar to American elm. The largest tree in North Dakota is 70 feet tall with a canopy spread of 62 feet. Common hackberry is a large deciduous tree reaching 12 m to 18 m in height at maturity. It causes stem-end rot or dieback in branches of mango (Kwon et al. This tree is also well suited to urban conditions and can be used in yards and patios as well as along street and boulevards. Armillaria root rot Armillaria spp. 1c). 5). Mycosphere 8(4):521–532, Glass NL, Donaldson GC (1995) Development of primer sets designed for use with the PCR to amplify conserved genes from filamentous ascomycetes. Armillaria Root Rot: Also known as Oak root fungus, is a disease caused by the fungi of the genus Armillaria. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-019-01049-x, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-019-01049-x, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in For graduate student information, contact Dr. Doug Archbold at 859-257-3352, or darchbol@uky.edu, Sugar Hackberry - Celtis laevigataElm Family (Ulmaceae). 2001). hackberry, jojoba, and cacti are very tolerant. 2017). However, with increased planting, Chinese hackberry diseases are increasing and becoming more and more serious (Cacciola 2000; Berbegal et al. Disease symptoms observed on Chinese hackberry in Shuyang, Jiangsu. The pathogen overwinters in the diseased twigs or soil and becomes the source of infection the following year, with spores travelling by means of wind, rain and insects (Wu et al. Persoonia 33:155–168, Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S (2011) Mega5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Google Scholar, Alves A, Crous PW, Correia A, Phillips AJL (2008) Morphological and molecular data reveal cryptic speciation in Lasiodiplodia theobromae. 2014), English walnut stem canker (Li et al. Als die Route 66 an Bedeutung zunahm übernahm der General Store zusätzlich die Versorgung der Reisenden mit Benzin und Proviant. 2012; Marques et al. Celtis occidentalis, commonly known as the common hackberry, is a large deciduous tree native to North America. The entire infected 4-year-old seedlings were brought to the laboratory for isolation of the pathogen. The effect is cosmetic only and does not warrant control. 6). Hackberries are currently suffering from two major afflictions. Heavy soils and/or caliche cause poor soil drainage. a Pycnidia. e Xylem discoloration (Bars = 500 µm). Root rots thrive on poor soil conditions. Jake at TREES BY JAKE is an ISA Certified Arborist and has extensive experience in identifying and diagnosing all types of tree disease, including root rot. They are susceptible to a root fungus (Hypoxylon) that appears around the base of the tree as a black, crusty growth. Microbiology 3:466–469, Zhao JP, Lu Q, Liang J, Decock C, Zhang XY (2010) Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, a new record of pathogenic fungus from some subtropical and tropical trees in southern China. Invertebrates. Plant Pathol 60(4):739–751, CAS  In the instance that you face any kind of complications, install Kingo Root on your pc, connect your BlackBerry KEY2 and go along with the recommendations. Chinese hackberry (Celtis sinensis Pers.) Ambiguously aligned regions were excluded and gaps were treated as missing data. - This disease is one of the most common root and butt rots of southern hardwoods. This tree has weak wood that breaks under the stresses of snow, ice and wind. Fengmao Chen. Ganoderma Root Rot Artist's Conk Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) The fungus was recovered from the symptomatic inoculated tissues and the culture’s characteristics and morphology were similar to the Ls7 isolate. Each group was cultured for 7 days at 25 °C in darkness. White Rot – This is still severe as it too causes tree decay, but the wood will feel moist and spongy instead. The occurrence of the disease should be closely monitored and preventative measures put in place to avoid the spread of the disease.

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